The assignement require to study 3 artists.Herta puls and Wassliy Kandinsky were nominated. I have to choose a third artist. I choosed Gustav Klimt for my contextual study as an influential austrian painter of the late 19th century.
Herta Puls (1915-)
For my study about Herta Puls I visited the Forum Mola-Art in Bremen http://www.forum-mola-kunst.de/.
The treasure of this little museum exist from part of the collections Hartmann( Germany) and Herta Puls( Great Britain)They are brought in context to the European variant of the mola technical works of Christel Walter . Mrs Walter was so kind to tell me about her friend and colleague Herta Puls and let me have some copied excerpt of the book:” Textiles of the Kuna Indians of Panama.”-- The center of our conversation was the always continuing struggle of Herta Puls for the correct description of appliqué technique of the Kuna still today. Often articles in magazines described it as a handicraft work of stacking several fabric layers tacked together and cut from the top and each layer neatly applied to the one beneath. In1963McCall’sNeedlework and Crafts , an American magazine, reproduced pictures of three mola blouse panels. In this article the term reverse appliqué was invented. Even without having seen the women at work, Herta Puls saw that the complicated designs and effects could not have been achieved in that way. After being personal knowledgeable about the San Blas appliqué during several stays there she referred to the introduction of a booklet” Notes on Applied Work and Patchwork”: Applied work in embroidery may be defined as the sewing of patches to the surface of a material, so that they form a pattern either by their own shape and
color, or by the shape and color of the ground material. The latter is called reserved technique. Herta Puls is of the opinion that this is a much more accurate description of the San Blas appliqué ” Herta Puls studied embroidery at the Newport and West of England art colleges and the London college of Fashion. In 1970 she awarded the first price and the Silver Medal of the Merchant Taylors Company for her City and Guilds Certificate in Advanced Embroidery. Research for her thesis on appliqué of the Kuna Indians of Panama at the British Museum and Gothenburg Ethnographic Museum culminated in her first visit to the San Blas Islands in 1975. She taught about textiles and also lectured on Kuna appliqué and wrote her book: ”The Art of Cut Work and Appliqué”. This is an important study about the technique and design that stimulated great interest in embroidery at that time. She visited panama again in 1978,1981,and 1985. Interest in tribal textiles had been the motivation for travel to north and south America, India, Thailand and Indonesia. Herta Puls is also a wellknown artist in her own right . She has been a member of the 62 group of textile artists.
The term Mola (Plural:Molakana) is both the expression for a woman’s blouse and the appliqued front or back part of each blouse. Several layers of fabrics on top of each other are the basic for the complicated applique work. Also, extra pieces of fabric can be underlaid and overlaid. A Mola can be called a fabric relief. Typical of the composition is the open-work silhouette style, a stylized outline, which is derived
from sketching, with openwork and applique work on top. Also typical is the decomposition of the entire surface. Most important are the vertical interruptions which lie close to each other, since they represent the interval of the hut’s bamboo sticks seen from inside, which is meant to symbolically suggest safeness. The
Molakana are a testimony to the unique folkcraft of the Kuna woman and are a part of their cultural identity.
The sun is an often founded motive in the work of the Kuna women. I selected this motive because the sun also has a star shape. In the conception of the Kuna the sun is the center of the world, which sends its rays to all living creatures and makes life possible for plants and animals. The entire Mola is covered with triangles which symbolize huts.
Reference: Textiles of the Kuna Indians of Pananma by Herta Puls Molakana talk…. by Ursula Hartmann
Lebenskreise der Kuna By Günther und Ursula Hartmann
Jan trifft Gottvater Zeus von Christel Walter
Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
Kandinsky a Russian-born artist, was one of the first creators of pure abstraction in modern painting.Kandinsky, himself an accomplished musician, maintained ” Colour is the keyboard, the eyes are the harmonies, the soul is the piano with many strings. The artist is the hand that plays, touching one key or
another, to cause vibrations in the soul.” The concept that colour and musical harmony are linked has a long
history, intriguing scientists such as Sir Isaac Newton. Kandinsky had been intent on synaesthesia and used colour in a highly theoretical way associating tone with timbre (the sound's character), hue with pitch, and
saturation with the volume of sound. He even claimed that when he saw colour he heard music. He began exploring his own ideas of painting - "I applied streaks and blobs of colours onto the canvas with a palette knife and I made them sing with all the intensity I could..." Now as the founder of abstract art with forms evolved from fluid and organic to geometric and, finally, to pictographic , his work was exhibited throughout Europe from 1903 onwards, and often caused controversy among the public, the art critics, and his contemporaries. An active participant in several of the most influential and controversial art movements of the 20th century, among them the Blue Rider which he founded along with Franz Marc and the Bauhaus which also attracted Klee, Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), and Schonberg, Kandinsky continued to further express and define his form of art, both on canvas and in his theoretical writings. His reputation became firmly established in the United State s through numerous exhibitions and his work was introduced to Solomon Guggenheim, who became one of his most enthusiastic supporters. In 1933, Kandinsky left Germany and settled near Paris, in Neuilly. The paintings from these later years were again the subject of controversy.
Though out of favor with many of the patriarchs of Paris's artistic community, younger artists admired Kandinsky.
During the study about the works of Kandinsky I discovered two pictures, which mad me emotionally. “The fixed flight” makes me feel light and happy . The simple shapes fly across the canvas like spaceships .They remind me at the drawing of my son, when he was a child, and he painted those shapes on the wall of his room, which should be the universe
That’s like fight, confusion and excitement, it wakes furious motions of my soul.
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)
Gustav Klimt was an influential Austrian painter of the late 19th Century. He was one of the founders and leaders of the Vienna Secession art movement. He dominate the art scene in the capital of the empire of Austria-Hungary. His painting constitute a sublime frontier between traditional and modern, figurative and non-figurative. His immensely erotic portraits and sexually charged sketches, his richly pattern landscape and
mysterious allegorical compositions, are at once sensuous and refined and remain among the most recognized works of art.
The early works of Gustav Klimt were accompanying rather to the realism. A large part of the work of Klimt before 1898 were the big wall pictures which were ordered by theatres. In his further development
Klimt emancipated itself and developed creations which were very decorative and very symbolic. His work is marked by the use of gold to backgrounds and the tessellated patterns., The works of Klimt show by these elements the influence from different areas amongst from Egypt as well as classical Greek and Byzantine inspirations.
At the end of the 19th Klimt began to produce the beautiful portraits that would be one of his greatest legacies. These include amongst others the portrait of Sonja Knips and the portrait of Serena Lederer(1899)
Klimt continued working in his unique style of portraiture in the years 1904 through 1908, he painted portraits amongst others Adele BlochI .This is also considered the high point of the Golden Style with such
works as Danae, HopeII and the Kiss (1908), which is probably Klimt's most famous work.
1903, the Belgian businessman Alphonse Stoclet commissioned Klimt to create his last great mural project, the Stoclet Friezes In 1911,they were installed in the Stoclet mansion in Brussels. This work suggests strong
Japanese influence with its oriental facial characterics and kimono like robes. The ornate dresses are densely filled with geometric abstract schemes ,a deliberate counterbalance to the organic “tree of life” swirls
which stretched the whole length of the dining room walls. Paintings of this later period are characterized by jumbles of soft colors, though many of the elements are in keeping with his earlier work.